Dna Replication Steps Ap Biology Essays

If you believe that content available by means of the Website (as defined in our Terms of Service) infringes one or more of your copyrights, please notify us by providing a written notice (“Infringement Notice”) containing the information described below to the designated agent listed below. If Varsity Tutors takes action in response to an Infringement Notice, it will make a good faith attempt to contact the party that made such content available by means of the most recent email address, if any, provided by such party to Varsity Tutors.

Your Infringement Notice may be forwarded to the party that made the content available or to third parties such as ChillingEffects.org.

Please be advised that you will be liable for damages (including costs and attorneys’ fees) if you materially misrepresent that a product or activity is infringing your copyrights. Thus, if you are not sure content located on or linked-to by the Website infringes your copyright, you should consider first contacting an attorney.

Please follow these steps to file a notice:

You must include the following:

A physical or electronic signature of the copyright owner or a person authorized to act on their behalf; An identification of the copyright claimed to have been infringed; A description of the nature and exact location of the content that you claim to infringe your copyright, in \ sufficient detail to permit Varsity Tutors to find and positively identify that content; for example we require a link to the specific question (not just the name of the question) that contains the content and a description of which specific portion of the question – an image, a link, the text, etc – your complaint refers to; Your name, address, telephone number and email address; and A statement by you: (a) that you believe in good faith that the use of the content that you claim to infringe your copyright is not authorized by law, or by the copyright owner or such owner’s agent; (b) that all of the information contained in your Infringement Notice is accurate, and (c) under penalty of perjury, that you are either the copyright owner or a person authorized to act on their behalf.

Send your complaint to our designated agent at:

Charles Cohn Varsity Tutors LLC
101 S. Hanley Rd, Suite 300
St. Louis, MO 63105

Or fill out the form below:


Ch. 17- Transcription and Translation The central dogma of biology is DNA makes RNA. RNA makes protein and protein runs the cell. So, DNA is responsible, or is called the blueprint, for everything in the cell. The first step of translation, which is the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA, is called initiation. The promoter of a gene, which typically extends “upstream from the start point”, signals the start of RNA synthesis. In addition to serving as a binding site for RNA polymerase and determining where transcription stars, the promoter determines which of the two strands of the DNA helix is used as the template. The TATA box is an important DNA sequence of the promoter that assists in the binding of RNA polymerase. A collection of proteins called transcription factors help RNA polymerase to bind to the promoter and signal the beginning of transcription. The completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase 2 bound to the promoter is called the initiation complex. During the next step, elongation, the RNA polymerase begins to move along the DNA, untwisting the double helix, 10 to 20 bases at a time. The double helix immediately reforms and the RNA strand begins to peal away. As this happens, RNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the 3’ end of the growing RNA molecule. Polymerase reads 3’ to 5’, but adds 5’ to 3’. A gene can be transcribed simultaneously by several RNA polymerases, which will increase the amount of mRNA that is produced. The third step of transcription is called Termination. This step differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the polymerase stops transcription at the end of the terminator, causing the polymerase to detach from the DNA and release the transcript, which is available for immediate use as mRNA. In eukaryotes, the pre-mRNA is cleaved from the growing chain while the polymerase continues to transcribe the DNA, a specific sequence AAUAAA in the pre-mRNA. Eventually the polymerase falls of the DNA, signaling the end of transcription. Next, the eukaryotic pre-mRNA must be modified during RNA processing. First, the 5’end is capped with a modified version of of a guanine nucleotide, forming a 5’ cap. A poly-A-tail, which is the addition of 50 to 250 adenine nucleotide, is added to the 3’ end of a mRNA molecule. These two modifications seem to facilitate the export of mRNA, protect mRNA from hydrolytic enzymes in the cytosol, and facilitate the attachment of ribosomes to the 5’ end of the RNA to begin translation. Next, non-coding nucleotides, called introns, need to be cut out.

0 thoughts on “Dna Replication Steps Ap Biology Essays

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *