Case Study Copd Scribd



A.Background of the study

The case study that is to be presented features a patient who has emphysema. Emphysema is achronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). It is often caused by exposure totoxicchemicals, including long-term exposure totobacco smokeor cigarette smoking. The lungs become damaged because of reactions to irritants entering the airways and alveoli.Cigarette smoking is the major cause of emphysema, accounting for more than 80 percent of allcases. Emphysema occurs most often in people older than age 40 who have smoked for manyyears. Long-term exposure to secondhand smoke may also play a role. Smoking stresses thenatural antioxidant defense system of the lung, allowing free radicals to damage tissue down tothe cellular level. When cigarette smoke is inhaled, 80 to 90 per cent remains in the lungs andcauses irritation, increased mucus production and damage to the deep parts of the lungs.Eventually mucus and tar clog up the air tubes, causing chronic bronchitis and emphysema.Among other causes of emphysema are industrial pollutants, aerosol sprays, non-tobacco smoke,internal-combustion engine exhaust, and physiological atrophy associated with old age (senileemphysema).It was verbalized by the wife of the patient that he used to work at the farm in Morong. this could be one factor that caused the patient’s disease.Emphysema is characterized by loss of elasticity (increased pulmonary compliance) of the lungtissue caused by destruction of structures feeding the alveoli, owing to the action of alpha 1antitrypsin deficiency. This causes the small airways to collapse during forced exhalation, asalveolar collapsibility has decreased. As a result, airflow is impeded and air becomes trapped inthe lungs, in the same way as other obstructive lung diseases. Symptoms includeshortness of  breathon exertion, and anexpanded chest. However, the constriction of air passages isn't alwaysimmediately deadly, and treatment is available.Emphysema is often the result of smoke that has triggered the immune system to produce moreharmful enzymes. Although these harmful enzymes are normally prevented from causing anysignificant damage by a protective protein, smoking reduces the protein’s protective effect. Evenif someone has plenty of the protein in their system, smoking generates certain substances thatkeep the protective protein from doing its job.We as nurses are involved in learning what type of nursing interventions we are to apply to thistype of patient. Beyond understanding the relevant health issue, this case study will also exploreother factors that can enhance our knowledge in the field of our nursing practice. This is also the primary reason why we choose this case study because we know that it is highly beneficial asidefrom it being considered distinctive or unique.Included with the case study are the discussions of the anatomical parts, through physicalassessment of the patient, laboratory results and their corresponding findings, a reappliedframework theory by Florence Nightingale. Added to this we also have a corresponding plan for 1


Upper airway The upper airway consists of the:




Larynx The upper airway allows air to flow into and out of the lungs. It warms, humidifies,and filters inspired air and protects the lower airway from foreign matter.Lower airway The lower airway consists of:


Right and left mainstem bronchi

Five secondary bronchi

Bronchioles The lower airways facilitate gas exchange. Each bronchiole descends from alobule and contains terminal bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. Terminalbronchioles are “anatomic dead spaces” because they don’t participate in gasexchange. The alveoli are the chief units of gas exchange.In addition to warming, humidifying, and filtering inspired air, the lowerairway provides the lungs with defense mechanisms, including:1.Irritant reflexThe irritant reflex is triggered when inhaled particles, cold air, or toxinsstimulate irritant receptors. Reflex bronchospasm then occurs to limit the exposure,followed by coughing, which expels the irritant.2.Mucociliary system The mucociliary system produces mucus, which traps foreign particles.Foreign matter is then swept to the upper airway for expectoration. A breakdown in

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