Jesus of Nazareth Biography
Born: 4 B.C.E.
Died: c. 29 C.E.
Judean religious leader
Jesus of Nazareth, also known as Jesus Christ, was the central personality and founder of the Christian faith.
Jesus first came to general attention at the time of his baptism (religious ritual performed shortly after a child's birth), just prior to his public ministry. He was known to those around him as a carpenter of Nazareth, a town in Galilee, and as the son of Joseph (John 6:42). Matthew and Luke report that Jesus was born in Bethlehem, famous in Jewish history as the city of David. They further report that he was miraculously (something that occurs that cannot be explained by nature's laws) born to the Virgin Mary, although they both curiously trace his kinship to David through Joseph, to whom Mary was engaged. It is likely that Jesus was born not later than 4 B.C.E. , the year of King Herod's death. (The term Christ is actually a title, not a proper name; it comes from the Greek Christos, meaning the anointed, or the one chosen by God; in the Bible it is the Greek equivalent for the Hebrew word Messiah.)
Little is known of Jesus' childhood and youth. The letters of Paul are the earliest biblical records that tell about Jesus. But the four biblical Gospels by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, although written later, used sources that in some cases go back very close to the time of Jesus. But about the year 28 or 29 C.E. his life interacted with the career of John the Baptist. Jesus heard John's preaching and joined the crowds for baptism in the Jordan River. Following his baptism Jesus went into the desert for prayer and reflection.
Returning from the desert, Jesus began preaching and teaching in Galilee. His initial declaration was both frightening and hopeful. It told people not to cling to the past, that God would overthrow old institutions and ways of life for a wonderful new future. This future would be especially welcomed by the poor, the powerless, and the peacemakers.
Jesus attracted twelve disciples to follow him. They were mainly fishermen and common workers. Of the twelve it seems that Peter, James, and John were closest to Jesus. Peter's home in Capernaum, a city on the Sea of Galilee, became a headquarters from which Jesus and the disciples moved out into the countryside. Sometimes he talked to large crowds, with the twelve to teach only them, or he might go off by himself for long periods of prayer.
The records concerning Jesus report many miracles (an event that goes against the laws of nature and has suggested divine influence). For centuries most people in civilizations influenced by the Bible not only believed literally in the miracles but took them as proof that Jesus had supernatural (something that is not normal, possibly with a spiritual influence) power. Then, in an age of reason and distrust, men often doubted the miracles and exposed the reports as dishonest. However, usually the Gospels report the healings as signs of the power of God and His coming kingdom.
Teachings of Jesus
Jesus taught people in small groups or large gatherings; his lessons are reported in friendly conversations or in arguments with those who challenged him. At times he made a particularly vivid comment in the midst of a dramatic incident.
The starting point of Jesus' message, as already noted, was the announcement of the coming of the kingdom of God. Since this kingdom was neither a geographical area nor a system of government, a better translation may be "God's reign" (God being in existence everywhere).
The rest of Jesus' teaching followed from this message about the reign of God. At times he taught in stories or parables that described the kingdom or the behavior of people who acknowledged God's reign. At times he pronounced moral commandments detailing the demands upon men of a loving and righteous God. At times Jesus taught his disciples to pray: the words that he gave them in the Lord's Prayer are often used today.
To some people Jesus was a teacher, or rabbi. The healing ministry did not necessarily change that impression of him because other rabbis were known as healers. But Jesus was a teacher of peculiar power, and he was sometimes thought to be a prophet (a person who tells of things that have been made known to him or her by a divine power).
Jesus of Nazareth.
On the day now known as Palm Sunday, Jesus entered Jerusalem, while his disciples and the crowds hailed him as the Son of David, who came in the name of the Lord. The next day Jesus went to the Temple and drove out the money-changers and those who sold pigeons for sacrifices, accusing them of turning "a house of prayer" into a "den of robbers." This act was a direct challenge to the small group of priests who were in charge of the Temple, and they clearly took offense to it. During the following days he entered into disagreements with the priests and teachers of religion. Their anger led them to plot to get rid of him, but they hesitated to do anything in the daytime, since many people were gathered for the feast of Passover (a Jewish religious holiday).
On Thursday night Jesus had a meal with his disciples. This meal is now re-enacted by Christians in the Lord's Supper, the Mass, or the Holy Communion. After the meal Jesus went to the Garden of Gethsemane, where he prayed alone. His prayer shows that he expected a conflict, that he still hoped he might avoid suffering, but he expected to do God's will. There into the garden one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, led the priests and the temple soldiers, who seized Jesus.
That same night Jesus' captors took him to a trial before the temple court, the Sanhedrin. Much evidence indicates that this was an illegal trial, but the Sanhedrin declared that Jesus was a blasphemer (a person who claims to be God or godlike) deserving death. Since at that time only the Roman overlords (supreme lords) could carry out a death sentence, the priests took Jesus to Pilate, the Roman governor of Judea.
Pilate apparently was reluctant to convict Jesus, since it was doubtful Jesus had disobeyed any Roman laws. Jesus, however, represented a threat to both the Sanhedrin and the Romans. Pilate thus ordered the crucifixion of Jesus. Roman soldiers beat him, put a crown of thorns on his head, and mocked him as a false king. Then they took him to the hill Golgotha ("the Skull"), or Calvary, and killed him. Pilate ordered a sign placed above his head: "King of the Jews." Jesus died and that same day (now known as Good Friday) was buried in a cave-like tomb.
On Sunday morning (now celebrated as Easter), the Gospels report, Jesus rose from the dead and met his disciples. Others immediately rejected the claim of the resurrection, and the debate has continued through the centuries.
The New Testament states very clearly that the risen Christ did not appear to everybody. Among those who saw Jesus were Cephas (Peter), the twelve disciples, "more than five hundred brethren at one time," James, and finally Paul. Other records tell of appearances to Mary Magdalene and other women and of a variety of meetings with the disciples. The four Gospels all say that the tomb of Jesus was empty on Easter morning. None of the records ever tells of an appearance of the risen Christ to anyone who had not been a follower of Jesus or (like Paul) had not been deeply disturbed by him.
The evidence is very clear that the followers of Jesus were absolutely convinced of his resurrection. The experience of the risen Jesus was so overwhelming that it turned their despair into courage. The disciples spread the conviction that he had risen, and they continued to tell their story at the cost of persecution and death. The faith in the resurrection (and later the rising up to the kingdom of God) of Jesus, despite differences in interpretation and detail, is a major reason for the rise and spread of the Christian faith.
For More Information
Crossan, John Dominic. Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography. San Francisco: HarperSan-Francisco, 1994.
Grimbol, William R. The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Life of Christ. Indianapolis: Alpha Books, 2001.
Guardini, Romano. The Lord. Chicago: Regnery, 1954. Reprint, Washington, DC: Regnery, 1996.
Harik, Ramsay M. Jesus of Nazareth: Teacher and Prophet. New York: Franklin Watts, 2001.
Oursler, Fulton. The Greatest Story Ever Told; a Tale of the Greatest Life Ever Lived. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1949. Reprint, Boston: G. K. Hall, 1979.
Pastva, Loretta. Jesus of Nazareth: The Mystery Revealed. Mission Hills, CA: Benziger, 1992.
This is a bibliography of works with information or interpretations of the life and teachings of Jesus. The list is grouped by date, and sorted within each group (except for the very earliest works) alphabetically by name of author.
Jesus of Nazareth (; 7–2 BC/BCE to 30–36 AD/CE), commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christian denominations venerate him as God the Sonincarnated and believe that he rose from the dead after being crucified. The principal sources of information regarding Jesus are the four canonical gospels.
1st and 2nd centuries
- The New Testament of the Bible, especially the Gospels (see List of Gospels). Editions include The Greek New Testament, Aland, United Bible Societies.
- The Nag Hammadi Library
- The Diatessaron by Tatian, a harmonisation of the four canonical Gospels.
- Miller, Robert J., ed. (September 1, 2010). The Complete Gospels (4th ed.). Salem, OR: Polebridge Press. ISBN 978-1598150186.
- Holmes, Michael W., ed. (1999). The Apostolic Fathers: Greek texts and English Translations (3rd ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books. 1st edition 1890, translated and edited by Lightfoot, J. B.; 1891, revised by Harmer, J. R.
- Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews18.63-64 (18.3.3 in the numbering system of older editions). The authenticity of this passage is disputed.
- Dupuis, Charles François (1872). The Origin of All Religious Worship. archive.org. Translated from the French. New Orleans. Retrieved February 10, 2015. First French edition 1798, abridged from a 12-volume work of 1795.
- Reimarus, Hermann Samuel (1970) [c.1750–60]. Buchanan, George Wesley, ed. The Goal of Jesus and His Disciples. Translated from the German by Buchanan, George Wesley. Leiden: E. J. Brill. The English title does not correspond to that of any work by Reimarius in either German or English Wikipedia.[clarification needed]
- Volney, C. F. (1890) . The Ruins, or Meditations on the Revolutions of Empires: and the Law of Nature. gutenberg.org. Translated from the French by Thomas Jefferson and Joel Barlow. New York, NY: Twentieth Century Publishing Co. Retrieved February 10, 2015. Original French publication 1791.
- Bauer, Bruno (May 2002) . Trejo, Paul, ed. An English Edition of Bruno Bauer's 1843 Christianity Exposed: A Recollection of the Eighteenth Century and a Contribution to the Crisis of the Nineteenth Century. Translated from the German by Ziegler, Esther. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 978-0773471832.
- Carlyle, Thomas (1896). On Heroes and Hero-Worship: and the Heroic in History. London: Ward, Lock & Bowden Ltd.
- Edersheim, Alfred (1883). The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
- Kierkegaard, Søren (1941) . Training in Christianity, and the Edifying Discourse Which 'Accompanied' It. Translated from the Danish. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Notovitch, Nicolas (1890). The Unknown Life of Jesus Christ. gutenberg.org. Translated from the Russian by J. H. Connelly and L. Landsberg. New York, NY: R. F. Fenno. Retrieved February 15, 2015. Original Russian publication 1887.
- Renan, Joseph Ernest (1864). The Life of Jesus. London: Trübner & Co.
- Strauss, David Friedrich (June 1, 2010) . The Life of Jesus, Critically Examined. Translated from the 4th German edition by George Eliot. Cosimo Classics. ISBN 978-1616403096. Original German publication 1835–36.
- Strauss, David Friedrich (1879). The Life of Jesus for the People. archive.org. Authorised translation (2nd ed.). London and Edinburgh: Williams and Norgate. Retrieved February 10, 2015. Original German publication 1864.
- Strauss, David Friedrich (January 1, 1977). The Christ of Faith and the Jesus of History: A Critique of Schleiermacher's The Life of Jesus. Translated from the German by Keck, Leander E. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press. ISBN 978-0800612733. Original German publication 1865.
- Tolstoy, Leo (1894). The Kingdom of God is Within You. gutenberg.org. Translated from the Russian by Garnett, Constance. New York, NY: Cassell Publishing Co. Retrieved February 10, 2015. , Wikipedia article The Kingdom of God is Within You. Original Russian publication 1894.
- White, Ellen G. (1898). The Desire of Ages. Written by a founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Link to online text in main Wikipedia article.
- Brandes, Georg (1926). Jesus: A Myth. Translated from the Danish by Björkman, Edwin. New York: Albert & Charles Boni.
- Dobson, Rev. C. C. (May 29, 2008) . Did Our Lord Visit Britain: As They Say in Cornwall and Somerset? (9th ed.). London: Covenant Publishing. ISBN 978-0852050514.
- Dowling, Levi H. (1911) . The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ. The Philosophic and Practical Basis of the Religion of the Aquarian Age of the World and of the Church Universal. London: L. N. Fowler & Co. The main Wikipedia article contains links to the online text.
- Drews, Arthur (1909). The Christ Myth. Translated from the German by Burns, C. Delisle. London and Leipsic: T. Fisher Unwin. Link to online text in Wikipedia article.
- Eisler, Robert (1931). The Messiah Jesus and John the Baptist, According to Flavius Josephus' 'Capture of Jerusalem'. London: Methuen.
- Gibran, Kahlil (March 1995) . Jesus, the Son of Man. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0679439226.
- Graves, Robert (October 1981) . King Jesus: A Novel. New York, NY: Farrar Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0374181147.
- Hoskyns, Sir Edwyn; Davey, Noel (1931). The Riddle of the New Testament. London: Faber and Faber.
- Jack, James William (1933). The Historic Christ. An Examination of Dr. Robert Eisler's Theory According to the Slavonic version of Josephus and the Other Sources. London: J. Clarke & Co.
- Kalthoff, Albert (1907) . The Rise of Christianity. archive.org. Translated from the German by McCabe, Joseph. London: Watts & Co. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
- Lewis, C. S. (March 3, 2009) [1942–44]. Mere Christianity (Revised and enlarged ed.). San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 978-0060652920. A book on Christianity and logical support for Jesus as God, from an Anglo-Catholic perspective.
- Morison, Frank (1930). Who Moved the Stone? A Discussion of the Trial, Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ. London: Faber & Faber.
- Pyle, Howard (1903), Rejected of Men: A Story of To-day, New York: Harper. A novel about Jesus' coming to early twentieth century America.
- Remsburg, John E. (1909). The Christ: A Critical Review and Analysis of the Evidences of His Existence. archive.org. New York: The Truth Seeker Company. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
- Robertson, J. M., M.P. (1917). The Jesus Problem: A Restatement of the Myth Theory. archive.org. London: Watts & Co. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
- Schweitzer, Albert (1910). The Quest of the Historical Jesus: A Critical Study of Its Progress from Reimarus to Wrede. archive.org. Translated from the German by Montgomery, W. London: Adam and Charles Black. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
- Talmage, James E. (1922) . Jesus the Christ. gutenberg.org (6th ed.). Salt Lake City, UT: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved February 10, 2015. Main Wikipedia article Jesus the Christ (book).
- Urantia Foundation (1924–55). The Urantia Book. Link to online text in the main Wikipedia article.
- Albright, William F. (1968). Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan: An Historical Analysis of Two Contrasting Faiths. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co.ISBN 0-931464-01-3. 
- Allegro, John M. (May 18, 1970). The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross: A Study of the Nature and Origins of Christianity Within the Fertility Cults of the Ancient Near East. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0340128756.
- Andrews, Richard; Schellenberger, Paul (November 1996). The Tomb of God: The Body of Jesus and the Solution to a 2,000-Year-Old Mystery. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0316042758.
- Badenas, Robert (1985). Christ the End of the Law, Romans 10.4 in Pauline Perspective. Sheffield: JSOT Publishers. ISBN 0-905774-93-0. 
- Baigent, Michael; Leigh, Richard; Lincoln, Henry (September 7, 2006) . The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail (New ed.). New York, NY: Arrow Books. ISBN 978-0099503095.
- Baigent, Michael; Leigh, Richard; Lincoln, Henry (October 1987). The Messianic Legacy. New York, NY: Henry Holt & Company. ISBN 978-0805005684.
- Blomberg, Craig L. (November 10, 2007) . The Historical Reliability of the Gospels (2nd ed.). Downer's Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0830828074. 
- Bornkamm, Gunther (1960). Jesus of Nazareth. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0340011256.
- Brandon, S. G. F. (1967). Jesus and the Zealots: a Study of the Political Factor in Primitive Christianity. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0684310107.
- Brandon, S. G. F. (1968). The Trial of Jesus of Nazareth. London: Batsford. ISBN 978-0713412505.
- Brown, Raymond E. (October 13, 1997). An Introduction to the New Testament. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300140163.
- Bultmann, Rudolf (1958). Jesus Christ and Mythology. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Bultman was a prominent figure in early 20th century historical Jesus research.
- Carmichael, Joel (1963). The Death of Jesus. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd.
- Cohen, Shaye J. D. (1987). From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0664250171.
- Craig, William Lane (2000). The Son Rises: The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock. ISBN 978-1579104641. 
- Craig, William Lane (January 1, 1998). Will the Real Jesus Please Stand Up? A Debate Between William Lane Craig and John Dominic Crossan. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0801021756. 
- Crossan, John Dominic (August 3, 1996). Who Killed Jesus? Exposing the Roots of Anti-Semitism in the Gospel Story of the Death of Jesus. New York City: Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0060614805. Crossan is a prominent figure in contemporary historical Jesus research.
- Cupitt, Don; Armstrong, Peter (December 1977). Who Was Jesus?. London: BBC Books. ISBN 978-0563174134.
- Davenport, Guy; Urrutia, Benjamin (June 1, 1998). The Logia of Yeshua: The Sayings of Jesus. Berkeley, CA: Counterpoint. ISBN 978-1887178709.
- Dibelius, Martin (1963). Jesus: A Study of the Gospels. UK: SCM Press. Dibelius a prominent figure in 20th century historical Jesus research.
- Doherty, Earl (2005) . The Jesus Puzzle: Did Christianity Begin with a Mythical Christ? Challenging the Existence of an Historical Jesus. Ottawa: Age of Reason Publications. ISBN 978-0968925911. 
- Dundes, Alan (November 1, 1990) . The Hero Pattern and the Life of Jesus. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. In In Quest of the Hero. ISBN 978-0691020624. 
- Dunn, James D. G. (April 1, 1990). Jesus, Paul and the Law. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0664250959.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (1997). The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. archive.org. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508481-0. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (1999). Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195124743.
- Faber-Kaiser, A. (April 1977). Jesus died in Kashmir: Jesus, Moses and the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. Translated from the Spanish by M. G. Horwood. London: Gordon and Cremonesi. ISBN 978-0860330417. Original Spanish publication 1976.
- Fredriksen, Paula (July 1, 1988). From Jesus to Christ: The Origins of the New Testament Images of Christ. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300040180.
- Fredriksen, Paula (November 1999). Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews: A Jewish Life and the Emergence of Christianity. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0679446750.
- Freke, Timothy; Gandy, Peter (January 1, 1999). The Jesus Mysteries: Was the "Original Jesus" a Pagan God?. London: Thorsons. ISBN 978-0722536766.
- Funk, Robert W.; Hoover, Roy W.; Jesus Seminar (January 17, 1994). The Five Gospels: What Did Jesus Really Say? The Search for the Authentic Words of Jesus. New York, NY: Macmillan USA. ISBN 978-0025419490. Funk was an expert on parables, and Crossan (a founding member of the Jesus Seminar) is a major figure in contemporary historical Jesus research. Crossan promotes the view that Jesus was more of a Cynic sage, an important current viewpoint but secondary to the view that he was an apocalyptic prophet.
- Graves, Robert; Podro, Joshua (1953). The Nazarene Gospel Restored. London: Cassell & Co.ASIN B005VN4RCS.
- Graves, Robert (1957). Jesus in Rome: A Historical Conjecture. London: Cassell & Co. ASIN B000J2KBMG.
- Hinnels, John R., ed. (1975). Mithraic Studies: Proceedings of the First International Congress of Mithraic Studies. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0719005367. 
- Johnson, Luke Timothy (1996). The Real Jesus: The Misguided Quest for the Historical Jesus and the Truth of the Traditional Gospels. San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 978-0060641771.
- Joyce, Donovan (January 1973) . The Jesus Scroll: A Time Bomb for Christianity?. New York, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0803743007.
- Käsemann, Ernst (2013) . Jesus Means Freedom: A Polemical Survey of the New Testament. London: SCM Press. ISBN 9780334007753. Käsemann is a prominent figure in historical Jesus research.
- Kazantzakis, Nikos (1960) . The Last Temptation of Christ. Translated from the Greek. Simon & Schuster. ASIN B00M53Z3A2.
- Laidler, Keith (August 31, 1998). The Head of God – The Lost Treasure of the Templars. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0297841296.
- Leidner, Harold (April 2, 2000). The Fabrication of the Christ Myth. Survey Press. ISBN 978-0967790107. 
- Maccoby, Hyam Zoundell (1973). Revolution in Judea. Jesus and the Jewish Resistance. London: Ocean Books. 
- Maccoby, Hyam Zoundell (September 5, 2000). Jesus the Pharisee. London: SCM Press. ISBN 978-0334029144. 
- McDowell, Josh (October 22, 1999) . The New Evidence that Demands a Verdict: Fully Updated to Answer the Questions Challenging Christians Today. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson. ISBN 978-0785243632. 
- Meier, John P. (December 31, 1996) . A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus. Volume 1. New York, NY: Bantam Doubleday Dell. ISBN 978-0385264259.
- Meier, John P. (December 31, 1996) . A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus. Volume 2. New York, NY: Bantam Doubleday Dell. ISBN 978-0385469920. Volumes 3 and 4: 21st century.
- Mendenhall, George E. (1973). The Tenth Generation: The Origins of the Biblical Tradition. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801812675. A study of the earliest traditions of Israel from linguistic and archaeological evidence which treats the teachings and followers of Jesus in that context.
- Messori, Vittorio (November 1978). Jesus Hypotheses. Translated from the Italian by Smith, M. St Paul Publications. ISBN 978-0854391554. Italian title, Ipotesi su Gesù (1976). A book which initially explores the question of Jesus from two secular points of view, mythical (Jesus never lived) and critical (Jesus was not God), and finally considers a third hypothesis - faith.
- Mitchell, Stephen (October 1991). The Gospel According to Jesus: A New Translation and Guide to His Essential Teaching for Believers and Unbelievers. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0060166410.
- Pelikan, Jaroslav (July 1, 1985). Jesus Through the Centuries: His Place in the History of Culture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300034967.
- Phipps, William E. (February 28, 1986) . Was Jesus Married? The Distortion of Sexuality in the Christian Tradition (New ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0819151919. 
- Picknett, Lynn; Prince, Clive (August 1, 1997). The Templar Revelation: Secret Guardians of the True Identity of Christ. London: Bantam Press. ISBN 978-0593038703.
- Prophet, Elizabeth Clare (January 1, 1986). The Lost Years of Jesus: On the Discoveries of Notovich, Abhedananda, Roerich and Caspari. Washington, DC: Summit University Press. ISBN 978-0916766795.
- Rieser, Max (June 1979). The True Founder of Christianity and the Hellenistic Philosophy. Amsterdam: Graduate Press. ISBN 978-9062960811.
- Roberts, Michèle (June 1984). The Wild Girl. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0413529206. A novel.
- Robinson, John (September 4, 2013) . Honest to God. London: SCM Press. ISBN 978-0334047339. 
- Runeberg, Arne (1952). Jesu korsfästelse i religionshistorisk belysning (in Swedish). Helsingfors: Söderström. Employs evolutionary anthropology.
- Sanders, E. P. (1985). Jesus and Judaism. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press. ISBN 978-0800607432. A specialist book, but not inaccessible.
- Sanders, E. P. (November 30, 1995) . The Historical Figure of Jesus (New ed.). London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0140144994. An up-to-date, popular, but thoroughly scholarly book. Sanders is a prominent figure in contemporary historical Jesus research.
- Schaberg, Jane (October 17, 2006) . Illegitimacy of Jesus: A Feminist Theological Interpretation of the Infancy Narratives (20th anniversary ed.). Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press. ISBN 978-1905048847.