Mechanics Of Writing A Research Paper

Writing Mechanics & Grammar

Learning grammar rules and the mechanics of writing are critical components of learning to write.  Having strong skills in writing and grammar allows writers to get their message or story to their readers in a clear and understandable way.  It is important to know the rules of grammar and how to use them properly. is a useful site to find resources to help students improve their familiarity with writing and grammar. You’ll find free writing resources covering capitalization, parts of speech, and punctuation. The articles on each topic provide additional guidance and students can practice their skills using activities that include video lessons, printable worksheets and quizzes, standardized test prep materials, and interactive games. For a more in-depth look at the mechanics of writing, eight-week courses are available.

Parents and educators can use these resources to motivate students and reinforce skills. Students can gain a better understanding of writing and grammar as well as boost their confidence and expand their skills with online practice.

Parts of Speech

Knowing the parts of speech, using them correctly, and understanding how they relate to one another is an important early step in creating strong writing skills. From nouns and verbs to prepositions and conjunctions, each part of speech plays a key role in sentence structure and clarity of thought. ... Read More »

Subject-Verb Agreement

The question of subject-verb agreement highlights a writer’s need to make sentences clear and understandable. Having plural subjects with singular verbs, or the reverse, results in nobody being quite sure who is doing what. This becomes particularly important when long phrases separate the subject from the verb. Learning about and understanding subject-verb agreement helps writers create clear sentences that the reader will understand. ... Read More »


In a world of lowercase texting, learning proper capitalization takes on a whole new meaning. From learning to distinguish between “capitonyms” (a turkey in Turkey, a march in March) to learning the basic rules of capitalization, students have much to gain from mastering this area of writing mechanics. ... Read More »


Punctuation marks are signposts used by writers to give directions to their readers about which way a sentence is going. Using punctuation properly is one of the most crucial elements in making the meaning of the sentence absolutely clear. Take our favorite example: “Let’s eat Grandma!” becomes considerably less worrisome when a single comma is added … “Let’s eat, Grandma!” ... Read More »

Homophones, Homonyms, Homographs

Some of the most interesting words in English are homophones, homonyms, and homographs. However, intrigue can quickly give way to confusion when dealing with sound-alikes and look-alikes! Learning the distinction between identical spellings with two different pronunciations or two different spellings with identical pronunciation is not just confusing, but potentially frustrating. Still, with the proper approach, students can be brought to appreciate homophones, homonyms, and homographs. ... Read More »

  • Regarding the single-volume reference
    1. Author’s name in normal order (and not beginning with the last name as in a bibliography) followed by a comma;
    2. Title of work, underlined to indicate italics;
    3. Place and date of publication;
    4. Pagination references (The page number).
  • Example
    John Gassner, Masters of the Drama, New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1954, p. 315.

  • Regarding multivolumed reference
    1. Author’s name in the normal order;
    2. Title of work, underlined to indicate italics;
    3. Place and date of publication;
    4. Number of volume;
    5. Pagination references (The page number).
  • Regarding works arranged alphabetically
  • For works arranged alphabetically such as encyclopedias and dictionaries, no pagination reference is usually needed. In such cases the order is illustrated as under:
    Example 1
    “Salamanca,” Encyclopaedia Britannica, 14th Edition.
    Example 2
    “Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin,” Dictionary of national biography.
    But if there should be a detailed reference to a long encyclopedia article, volume and pagination reference may be found necessary.

  • Regarding periodicals reference
    1. Name of the author in normal order;
    2. Title of article, in quotation marks;
    3. Name of periodical, underlined to indicate italics;
    4. Volume number;
    5. Date of issuance;
    6. Pagination.
  • Regarding anthologies and collections reference Quotations from anthologies or collections of literary works must be acknowledged not only by author, but also by the name of the collector.
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