Essay On Neem Tree In Gujarati Horoscopes

The concept of adoption of a plant is been derived from Indian cultural history. The Indian astrology is based on the concept of Nakshatras (Constellations) and Rashis (as per moon signs). There are in all 27 Nakshatras present in a year and every individual has a Nakshatra assigned to him/her depending on the date and time on which he/she is born (the tithi).

Every Nakshatra has a symbolic tree or plant that defines its connection with eternal nature. In our Indian culture there was a tradition that whenever a baby is born in someone’s home, that person was supposed to plant a tree of the same Nakshatra on which the baby was born. The person was supposed to take care of the tree as his child because it was believed that the more good and healthy the tree will grow, it will prosper more health and happiness to the child.

If these trees have been assigned to the 27 nakshatras by the Vedic Rishis, than it will be worthwhile for us to know which tree belongs to our Janma Nakshatra (Birth Constellation) and to have some idea about its medicinal values or other applications.


So the presence of the complete set of 27 trees directly creates a healthy and sound physical, mental, psychological and spiritual beings; which is the ultimate and absolute bliss to oneself and to the Earth too!


Trees corresponding to Nakshtras and Rashis :
Sr. No. : 1

Nakshatra Name : Ashwini

Moon Sign : Aries

Lord : Ketu

Tree/Plant : Strychnine tree, Poison Nut (कुचला)

Latin Name : Strychnous Nux-Vomica

It is important medicinal tree which has its mention in ancient system of medicine. The seeds of ripe fruit are poisonous, hence the name.

Sr. No. : 2

Moon Sign : Aries

Lord : Venus

Tree/Plant : Amla, Indian Gooseberry (आवळा)

Latin Name : Phyllanthus Emblica

Sr. No. : 3
Nakshatra Name : Kritika
Moon Sign : Aries
Lord : Sun
Tree/Plant : Cluster Fig (औदुंबर)

Latin Name : Ficus Racemosa

The Rashi tree for Aries is Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus/रक्तचंदन). Being a rare species, plantation of this tree has its importance. It has tremendous medicinal properties and is mentioned number of times in Ayurveda. This tree is believed to purify air from toxic substances.
Sr. No. : 4

Nakshatra Name : Rohini

Moon Sign : Taurus

Lord : Moon

Tree/Plant : Jamun, Java Plum (जांभूळ)

Latin Name : Syzygium Cumini


Sr. No. : 5
Nakshatra Name : Mrig
Moon Sign : Taurus
Lord : Mars
Tree/Plant : Cutch tree (खैर)
Latin Name : Acacia Catechu

The Rashi tree for Taurus is Indian Devil tree, Blackboard tree (Alstonia Scolaris/सप्तपर्णी). It is an elegant fast-growing evergreen tree. With or without flowering, it is equally beautiful. It has many medicinal properties to its name. It is often planted as an ornament. 

Sr. No. : 6

Nakshatra Name : Ardra

Moon Sign : Gemini

Lord : Rahu

Tree/Plant : Black Ebony, Tendu (टेंभूर्णी, तेंदू)
OR
Krushnagus

Nakshatra Name : Punarvasu

Moon Sign : Gemini

Lord : Jupiter

Tree/Plant : Velu

Latin Name : Bambusa Arundinacea

It is basically a fast-growing type of grass which provide shelter place to many small birds. Its medicinal virtues are often neglected by gardeners who consider it as a messy plant. Actually speaking, it provide good quantity of mulch.


The Rashi tree for Gemini is Pala-Indigo tree (Wrightia Tinctoria/काळा-कुडा). Locally, it is also known as Dudhi.

Sr. No. : 8

Nakshatra Name : Pushya

Moon Sign : Cancer

Lord : Saturn

Trees/Plant : Peepal, Sacred Fig (पिंपळ)
Latin Name : Ficus Religiosa



Sr. No. : 9

Nakshatra Name : Ashlesha

Lord : Mercury

Trees/Plant : Beauty Leaf tree, Alexandrian Laurel (नागचाफा, उंडी)

Latin Name : Calophylum Inophyllum

It is an evergreen beautiful tree which tolerates variety of soils. It has fragrant flowers & is often planted for ornamental purpose. The oil extracted from the seeds is used as Biodiesel in USA & Europe.

Lord : Ketu

Trees/Plant : Banyan (वड, वट)

Latin Name : Ficus Benghalensis




Sr. No. : 11

Nakshatra Name : Poorva Phalguni

Moon Sign : Leo

Lord : Venus

Trees/Plant : Palash, Parrot tree (पळस)

Latin Name : Butea Monosperma

Sr. No. : 12

Nakshatra Name : Uttara Phalguni

Moon Sign : Leo

Lord : Sun

Trees/Plant : Payari

Latin Name : Ficus Arnottiana

The Rashi tree for Leo is Indian Jujube, Indian Plum (Ziziphus Mauritiana/बोर).


Sr. No. : 13
Nakshatra Name : Hasta
Moon Sign : Virgo
Lord : Moon
Trees/Plant : Jaai
Latin Name : Jasminum Grandiflora

Sr. No. : 14

Nakshatra Name : Chitra

Moon Sign : Virgo

Lord : Mars

Trees/Plant : Bael, Golden Apple (बेल)

Latin Name : Aegle Marmalos


The Rashi tree for Virgo is Mango (Mangifera Indica/आंबा)


Sr. No. : 15
Nakshatra Name : Swati

Moon Sign : Libra

Lord : Rahu

Trees/Plant : Arjun (अर्जुन)
Latin Name : Terminalia Arjuna

Nakshatra Name : Vishakha

Moon Sign : Libra

Lord : Jupiter
Trees/Plant : Nagkesar (नागकेसर) OR Wood Apple (कवठ, कैट)

Latin Name : Mesua Ferrea OR Limonia Acidissima

The Rashi tree for Libra is Indian Medler (Mimusops Elengi/बकुळ)

Sr. No. : 17

Nakshatra Name : Anuradha

Moon Sign : Scorpio
Lord : Saturn
Trees/Plant : Nagkesar (नागकेसर)

Latin Name : Mesua Ferrea


Sr. No. : 18

Nakshatra Name : Jyeshta

Moon Sign : Scorpio

Lord : Mercury

Trees/Plant : Semal, Red Silk-Cotton Tree (सावरी)

Latin Name : Bombax Ceiba


The Rashi tree for Scorpio is Indian Catechu (Acacia Catechu/खैर)

Nakshatra Name : Mool
Moon Sign : Sagittarius
Lord : Ketu
Trees/Plant : Salai

Latin Name : Boswellia Serrata



Sr. No. : 20
Nakshatra Name : Poorvashadha
Moon Sign : Sagittarius
Lord : Venus
Trees/Plant : Rattan Cane
Latin Name : Calamus Pseudotenuis (वेत)
It is a strong climber which has clustered stems. It usually need a support to climb.

Sr. No. : 21

Nakshatra Name : Uttarashadha

Moon Sign : Sagittarius

Lord : Sun

Trees/Plant : Jackfruit (फणस)

Latin Name : Artocarpus Heterophyllus


The Rashi tree for Sagittarius is Peepal (Ficus Religiosa/पिंपळ)

Trees/Plant : Crown Flower (रुई)

Latin Name : Calotropis Gigantea




Sr. No. : 23

Nakshatra Name : Dhanishtha

Moon Sign : Capricorn

Lord : Mars

Trees/Plant : Indian Mesquite, Khejri tree (शमी)
Latin Name : Prosopis Cineraria


The Rashi tree for Capricorn is Indian Rosewood (Dalbergia Sissoo/शिसम).


Sr. No. : 24
Nakshatra Name : Shatatarka
Moon Sign : Aquarius
Lord : Rahu
Trees/Plant : Kadam, Common Bur Flower (कदंब)

Latin Name : Anthocephalus Cadamba


Sr. No. : 25
Nakshatra Name : Poorvabhadrapada
Moon Sign : Aquarius
Lord : Jupiter
Trees/Plant : Mango (आंबा)

Latin Name : Mangifera Indica


The Rashi tree for Aquarius is Indian Mesquite (Prosopis Cineraria/शमी)

Sr. No. : 26
Nakshatra Name : Uttarabhadrapada
Moon Sign : Pisces

Lord : Saturn

Trees/Plant : Neem (कडुनिंब)
Latin Name : Azadirachta Indica




Sr. No. : 27

Nakshatra Name : Revati

Moon Sign : Pisces

Lord : Mercury

Trees/Plant : Mahua, Mohwa (मोह, मोहवा)

Latin Name : Madhuca Latifolia


The Rashi tree for Pisces is Banyan tree (Ficus Benghalensis/वड)


It is believed that the tree of Nakshatra in which the person is born gives strength to him. I don't say that it should be believed, or for that matter astrology as such, but Nakshatra Vana (forest) is an attractive idea and a way to encourage growing trees.


Maywe all believe in astrology or not, we will definitely agree to one simple thing that this concept of plant adoption was one of the very smartly planned conservation strategy by our ancestors. Today looking at our 'selfish' and 'just consume' attitude towards the whole-n-sole of our life - Mother Nature, we find it really necessary to rejuvenate and spread this concept of adopting at least one plant per person..!
Sr. No. : 16
Sr. No. : 19
Sr. No. : 22

Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, nimtree or Indian lilac,[2] is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae. It is one of two species in the genus Azadirachta, and is native to the Indian subcontinent, i.e. India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Maldives. It is typically grown in tropical and semi-tropical regions. Neem trees also grow in islands located in the southern part of Iran. Its fruits and seeds are the source of neem oil.

Description[edit]

Neem is a fast-growing tree that can reach a height of 15–20 metres (49–66 ft), and rarely 35–40 metres (115–131 ft). It is evergreen, but in severe drought it may shed most of its leaves or nearly all leaves. The branches are wide and spreading. The fairly dense crown is roundish and may reach a diameter of 15–20 metres (49–66 ft) in old, free-standing specimens. The neem tree is very similar in appearance to its relative, the Chinaberry (Melia azedarach).

The opposite, pinnate leaves are 20–40 centimetres (7.9–15.7 in) long, with 20 to 31 medium to dark green leaflets about 3–8 centimetres (1.2–3.1 in) long. The terminal leaflet often is missing. The petioles are short.

The (white and fragrant) flowers are arranged in more-or-less drooping axillarypanicles which are up to 25 centimetres (9.8 in) long. The inflorescences, which branch up to the third degree, bear from 150 to 250 flowers. An individual flower is 5–6 millimetres (0.20–0.24 in) long and 8–11 millimetres (0.31–0.43 in) wide. Protandrous, bisexual flowers and male flowers exist on the same individual tree.

The fruit is a smooth (glabrous), olive-like drupe which varies in shape from elongate oval to nearly roundish, and when ripe is 1.4–2.8 centimetres (0.55–1.10 in) by 1.0–1.5 centimetres (0.39–0.59 in). The fruit skin (exocarp) is thin and the bitter-sweet pulp (mesocarp) is yellowish-white and very fibrous. The mesocarp is 0.3–0.5 centimetres (0.12–0.20 in) thick. The white, hard inner shell (endocarp) of the fruit encloses one, rarely two, or three, elongated seeds (kernels) having a brown seed coat.

Etymology[edit]

Neem (नीम) is a Hindi noun derived from Sanskrit Nimba (निंब).[3][4][5]

Ecology[edit]

The neem tree is noted for its drought resistance. Normally it thrives in areas with sub-arid to sub-humid conditions, with an annual rainfall of 400–1,200 millimetres (16–47 in). It can grow in regions with an annual rainfall below 400 mm, but in such cases it depends largely on ground water levels. Neem can grow in many different types of soil, but it thrives best on well drained deep and sandy soils. It is a typical tropical to subtropical tree and exists at annual mean temperatures of 21–32 °C (70–90 °F). It can tolerate high to very high temperatures and does not tolerate temperature below 4 °C (39 °F). Neem is one of a very few shade-giving trees that thrive in drought-prone areas e.g. the dry coastal, southern districts of India, and Pakistan. The trees are not at all delicate about water quality and thrive on the merest trickle of water, whatever the quality. In India and tropical countries where the Indian diaspora has reached, it is very common to see neem trees used for shade lining streets, around temples, schools and other such public buildings or in most people's back yards. In very dry areas the trees are planted on large tracts of land.

Weed status[edit]

Neem is considered a weed in many areas, including some parts of the Middle East, most of Sub-SaharanAfrica including West Africa and Indian Ocean states, and some parts of Australia. Ecologically, it survives well in similar environments to its own, but its weed potential has not been fully assessed.[6]

In April 2015, A. indica was declared a class B and C weed in the Northern Territory, Australia, meaning its growth and spread must be controlled and plants or propagules are not allowed to be brought into the NT. It is illegal to buy, sell, or transport the plants or seeds. Its declaration as a weed came in response to its invasion of waterways in the "Top End" of the territory.[7]

After being introduced into Australia, possibly in the 1940s, A. indica was originally planted in the Northern Territory to provide shade for cattle. Trial plantations were established between the 1960s and 1980s in Darwin, Queensland, and Western Australia, but the Australian neem industry did not prove viable. The tree has now spread into the savanna, particularly around waterways, and naturalised populations exist in several areas.[8]

Uses[edit]

Neem leaves are dried in India and placed in cupboards to prevent insects eating the clothes, and also in tins where rice is stored.[9] Neem leaves are dried and burnt in the tropical regions to keep away mosquitoes.[citation needed] These flowers are also used in many Indian festivals like Ugadi. See below: #Association with Hindu festivals in India. As an ayurvedic herb, neem is also used in baths.

As a vegetable[edit]

The tender shoots and flowers of the neem tree are eaten as a vegetable in India. A souplike dish called Veppampoocharu (Tamil) (translated as "neem flower rasam") made of the flower of neem is prepared in Tamil Nadu. In Bengal, young neem leaves are fried in oil with tiny pieces of eggplant (brinjal). The dish is called nim begun and is the first item during a Bengali meal that acts as an appetizer. It is eaten with rice.[10]

Neem is used in parts of mainland Southeast Asia, particularly in Cambodia aka sdov—ស្ដៅវ,[11] Laos (where it is called kadao), Thailand (where it is known as sadao or sdao), Myanmar (where it is known as tamar) and Vietnam (where it is known as sầu đâu and is used to cook the salad gỏi sầu đâu). Even lightly cooked, the flavour is quite bitter and the food is not enjoyed by all inhabitants of these nations, though it is believed to be good for one's health. Neem gum is a rich source of protein. In Myanmar, young neem leaves and flower buds are boiled with tamarind fruit to soften its bitterness and eaten as a vegetable. Pickled neem leaves are also eaten with tomato and fish paste sauce in Myanmar.

Traditional medicinal use[edit]

Products made from neem trees have been used in India for over two millennia for their medicinal properties.[9] Neem products are believed by Siddha and Ayurvedic practitioners to be Anthelmintic, antifungal, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antiviral, contraceptive, and sedative.[12] It is considered a major component in siddha medicine and Ayurvedic and Unani medicine and is particularly prescribed for skin diseases.[13] Neem oil is also used for healthy hair, to improve liver function, detoxify the blood, and balance blood sugar levels.[14] Neem leaves have also been used to treat skin diseases like eczema, psoriasis, etc.[9]

Insufficient research has been done to assess the purported benefits of neem, however.[15] In adults, short-term use of neem is safe, while long-term use may harm the kidneys or liver; in small children, neem oil is toxic and can lead to death.[15] Neem may also cause miscarriages, infertility, and low blood sugar.[15]

Safety issues[edit]

Neem oil can cause some forms of toxic encephalopathy and ophthalmopathy if consumed in large quantities.[16]

Pest and disease control[edit]

Neem (Ineem) is a key ingredient in non-pesticidal management (NPM), providing a natural alternative to synthetic pesticides. Neem seeds are ground into a powder that is soaked overnight in water and sprayed onto the crop. To be effective, it must be applied repeatedly, at least every ten days. Neem does not directly kill insects on the crop. It acts as an anti-feedant, repellent, and egg-laying deterrent, protecting the crop from damage. The insects starve and die within a few days. Neem also suppresses the hatching of pest insects from their eggs. Neem-based fertilizeres have been effective against the pest southern armyworm. Neem cake is often sold as a fertilizer.[17]

Neem oil has been shown to avert termite attack as an ecofriendly and economical agent.[18]

Neem oil for polymeric resins[edit]

Applications of neem oil in the preparation of polymeric resins have been documented in the recent reports. The synthesis of various alkyd resins from neem oil is reported using a monoglyceride (MG) route and their utilization for the preparation of PU coatings.[19] The alkyds are prepared from reaction of conventional divalent acid materials like phthalic and maleic anhydrides with MG of neem oil. In other reports, different routes for preparation of polymeric resins from neem oil also are reported.[20]

Construction[edit]

The juice of this plant is a potent ingredent for a mixture of wall plaster, according to the Samarāṅgaṇa Sūtradhāra, which is a Sanskrit treatise dealing with Śilpaśāstra (Hindu science of art and construction).[21]

Other uses[edit]

  • Toiletries: Neem oil is used for preparing cosmetics such as soap, shampoo, balms, and creams as well as toothpaste
  • Animal Treatment: Used to treat sweet itch and mud fever in horses
  • Toothbrush: Traditionally, slender neem twigs (called datun) are first chewed as a toothbrush and then split as a tongue cleaner.[22] This practice has been in use in India, Africa, and the Middle East for centuries. It is still used in India's rural areas. Neem twigs are still collected and sold in rural markets for this use. It has been found to be as effective as a toothbrush in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation.[23][24]
  • Tree: Besides its use in traditional Indian medicine, the neem tree is of great importance for its anti-desertification properties and possibly as a good carbon dioxide sink.[25][26][27]
  • Neem gum is used as a bulking agent and for the preparation of special purpose foods.
  • Neem blossoms are used in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka to prepare Ugadi pachhadi. A mixture of neem flowers and jaggery (or unrefined brown sugar) is prepared and offered to friends and relatives, symbolic of sweet and bitter events in the upcoming new year, Ugadi. "Bevina hoovina gojju" (a type of curry prepared with neem blossoms) is common in Karnataka throughout the year. Dried blossoms are used when fresh blossoms are not available. In Tamil Nadu, a rasam (veppam poo rasam) made with neem blossoms is a culinary specialty.
  • Cosmetics: Neem is perceived in India as a beauty aid. Powdered leaves are a major component of at least one widely used facial cream. Purified neem oil is also used in nail polish and other cosmetics.
  • Bird repellent: Neem leaf boiled in water can be used as a very cost-effective bird repellent, especially for sparrows.
  • Lubricant: Neem oil is non-drying and it resists degradation better than most vegetable oils. In rural India, it is commonly used to grease cart wheels.
  • Fertilizer: Neem extract is added to fertilizers (urea) as a nitrification inhibitor.[28]
  • Plant protectant: Ploughed into the soil, it protects plant roots from nematodes and white ants, probably as it contains the residual limonoids.[citation needed] In Karnataka, people grow the tree mainly for its green leaves and twigs, which they puddle into flooded rice fields before the rice seedlings are transplanted.
  • Resin: An exudate can be tapped from the trunk by wounding the bark. This high protein material is not a substitute for polysaccharide gum, such as gum arabic. It may, however, have a potential as a food additive, and it is widely used in South Asia as "Neem glue".
  • Bark: Neem bark contains 14% tannin, an amount similar to that in conventional tannin-yielding trees (such as Acacia decurrens). Moreover, it yields a strong, coarse fibre commonly woven into ropes in the villages of India.
  • Honey: In parts of Asia neem honey commands premium prices, and people promote apiculture by planting neem trees.
  • Soap: 80% of India's supply of neem oil now is used by neem oil soap manufacturers.[29] Although much of it goes to small-scale speciality soaps, often using cold-pressed oil, large-scale producers also use it, mainly because it is cheap. Additionally it is antibacterial and antifungal, soothing, and moisturising. It can be made with up to 40% neem oil.[29] Generally, the crude oil is used to produce coarse laundry soaps.
  • Against pox viruses: In India, people who are affected with pox viruses are generally made to lie in a bed made of neem leaves and branches.[citation needed] The belief is that it prevents the spreading of pox virus to others[citation needed] and has been in practice since early centuries.[citation needed]
  • Animal feed: Neem leaves can be occasionally used as forage for ruminants and rabbits.[30]

Association with Hindu festivals in India[edit]

Neem leaf or bark is considered an effective pitta pacifier because of its bitter taste. Hence, it is traditionally recommended during early summer in Ayurveda (that is, the month of Chaitra as per the Hindu Calendar which usually falls in the month of March – April).

In the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Telangana, Neem flowers are very popular for their use in 'Ugadi Pachhadi' (soup-like pickle), which is made on Ugadi day. In Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Telangana, a small amount of Neem and Jaggery (Bevu-Bella) is consumed on Ugadi day, the Telugu and Kannada new year, indicating that one should take both bitter and sweet things in life, joy and sorrow.

During Gudi Padva, which is the New Year in the state of Maharashtra, the ancient practice of drinking a small quantity of neem juice or paste on that day, before starting festivities, is found. As in many Hindu festivals and their association with some food to avoid negative side-effects of the season or change of seasons, neem juice is associated with Gudi Padva to remind people to use it during that particular month or season to pacify summer pitta.

In Tamil Nadu during the summer months of April to June, the Mariamman temple festival is a thousand-year-old tradition. The Neem leaves and flowers are the most important part of the Mariamman festival. The statue of the goddess Mariamman will be garlanded with Neem leaves and flowers. During most occasions of celebrations and weddings the people of Tamil Nadu adorn their surroundings with the Neem leaves and flowers as a form of decoration and also to ward off evil spirits and infections.

In the eastern coastal state of Odisha the famous Jagannath temple deities are made up of Neem heart wood along with some other essential oils and powders.

Chemical compounds[edit]

Ayurveda was the first to bring the anthelmintic, antifungal, antibacterial, and antiviral constituents of the neem tree to the attention of natural products chemists. The process of extracting neem oil involves extracting the water-insoluble components with ether, petrol ether, ethyl acetate, and dilute alcohol. The provisional naming was nimbin (sulphur-free crystalline product with melting point at 205 °C, empirical composition C7H10O2), nimbinin (with similar principle, melting at 192 °C), and nimbidin (cream-coloured containing amorphous sulphur, melting at 90–100 °C). Siddiqui identified nimbidin as the main active antibacterial ingredient, and the highest yielding bitter component in the neem oil.[31][full citation needed] These compounds are stable and found in substantial quantities in the Neem. They also serve as natural insecticides.[32][full citation needed]

Neem-coated urea is being used an alternate to plain urea fertilizer in India. It reduces pollution, improves fertilizer's efficacy and soil health.[33][34]

Genome and transcriptomes[edit]

Neem genome and transcriptomes from various organs have been sequenced, analyzed, and published by Ganit Labs in Bangalore, India.[35][36][37]

ESTs were identify by generation of subtractive hybridization libraries of neem fruit, leaf, fruit mesocarp, and fruit endocarp by CSIR-CIMAP Lucknow.[38][39]

Cultural and social impact[edit]

In Theravada Buddhism, the neem tree is said to have been used to achieve enlightenment (bodhi) by Tissa, the twentieth Lord Buddha.[citation needed] Some sources claim, however, that Terminalia tomentosa was the Bodhi tree used.[citation needed]

In 1995, the European Patent Office (EPO) granted a patent on an anti-fungal product derived from neem to the United States Department of Agriculture and W. R. Grace and Company.[40] The Indian government challenged the patent when it was granted, claiming that the process for which the patent had been granted had been in use in India for more than 2,000 years. In 2000, the EPO ruled in India's favour, but W. R. Grace appealed, claiming that prior art about the product had never been published in a scientific journal. On 8 March 2005, that appeal was lost and the EPO revoked the Neem patent.[40]

Symbolism[edit]

Previously, neem had been declared as the national tree of the former Hyderabad State.

Biotechnology[edit]

The biopesticide produced by extraction from the tree seeds contains limonoids. Currently, the extraction process has disadvantages such as contamination with fungi and heterogeneity in the content of limonoids due to genetic, climatic, and geographical variations.[41][42] To overcome these problems, production of limonoids from plant cell suspension and hairy root cultures in bioreactors has been studied,[43][44] including the development of a two-stage bioreactor process that enhances growth and production of limonoids with cell suspension cultures of A. indica.[45]

Gallery[edit]

  • Neem tree in a banana farm in India

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Fruit drying for oil extraction
cleaning teeth by chewing stick
Native of Chhattisgarh with Neem branches and leaves for Hareli Festival
  1. ^ ab"Azadirachta indica". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 14 December 2016 – via The Plant List. 
  2. ^ ab"Azadirachta indica". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 9 June 2017. 
  3. ^Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2013), Neem, page 679, Third Edition 2008 reprinted with corrections 2013, Oxford University Press.
  4. ^Henry Yule and A. C. Burnell (1996), Hobson-Jobson, Neem, page 622, The Anglo-Indian Dictionary, Wordsworth Reference. (This work was first published in 1886)
  5. ^Encarta World English Dictionary (1999), Neem, page 1210, St. Martin's Press, New York.
  6. ^Plant Risk Assessment, Neem Tree, Azadirachta indica(PDF). Biosecurity Queensland. 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  7. ^Neem has been declared: what you need to know(PDF), Department of Land Resource Management, 2015, archived from the original(PDF) on 24 March 2015, retrieved 17 March 2015 
  8. ^Neem Azadirachta indica(PDF), Department of Land Resource Management, 2015, archived from the original(PDF) on 24 March 2015, retrieved 17 March 2015 
  9. ^ abcAnna Horsbrugh Porter (17 April 2006). "Neem: India's tree of life". BBC News. 
  10. ^"Neem Baigan". Jiva Ayruveda. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. 
  11. ^"ស្ដៅវ". Phyllyppo Tum. 
  12. ^D.P. Agrawal (n.d.). "Medicinal properties of Neem: New Findings". 
  13. ^S. Zillur Rahman and M. Shamim Jairajpuri. Neem in Unani Medicine. Neem Research and Development Society of Pesticide Science, India, New Delhi, February 1993, p. 208-219. Edited by N.S. Randhawa and B.S. Parmar. 2nd revised edition (chapter 21), 1996
  14. ^"Neem". Tamilnadu.com. 6 December 2012. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. 
  15. ^ abcNeem, WebMD.
  16. ^M.V. Bhaskara; S.J. Pramoda; M.U. Jeevikaa; P.K. Chandana; G. Shetteppa (May 6, 2010). "Letters: MR Imaging Findings of Neem Oil Poisoning". American Journal of Neuroradiology. American Society of Neuroradiology. 31 (7): E60–E61. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A2146. 
  17. ^Material Fact Sheets — NeemArchived 12 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^YashRoy, R.C.; Gupta, P.K. (2000). "Neem-seed oil inhibits growth of termite surface-tunnels". Indian Journal of Toxicology. 7 (1): 49–50. 
  19. ^Development of PU Coatings from Neem Oil Based Alkyds Prepared by Monoglyceride Route, Journal of American Oil Chemist’s Society, doi:10.1007/s11746-015-2642-3
  20. ^Development of anticorrosive two pack polyurethane coatings based on modified fatty amide of Azadirachta indica Juss oil cured at room temperature – a sustainable resource, A. B. Chaudhari, A.S.Kuwar, P. P. Mahulikar, D. G. Hundiwale, R. D. Kulkarni, V. V. Gite, RSC Advances, 17866-17872, 2014, doi:10.1039/c4ra01880j
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